Category: Uncategorized




ScienceOpen GmbH

Geschäftsführer/Managing Directors:
Dr. Stephanie Dawson, Prof. Dr. Alexander Grossmann, Tibor Tscheke

Postal Address:
Pappelallee 78-79
10437 Berlin

Phone: +49-(0)30-6098490277

Registergericht: Amtsgericht Charlottenburg
Registernummer: HRB 151322 B
USt-IdNr.: DE292305625

Corresponding Editor: „Verantwortlich für den redaktionell-journalistisch gestalteten Inhalt gemäß § 55 Abs. 2 des Rundfunkstaatsvertrags (RStV)“: Dr. Stephanie Dawson.
Verantwortlich für die hochgeladenen Inhalte und Artikel Dritter sind ausschließlich der/die in diesen Artikeln gekennzeichneten „Corresponding Author(s)“.


Online Services:

ScienceOpen, Inc.

Managing Directors:
Dr. Stephanie Dawson, Tibor Tscheke

Postal Address:
131 Hartwell Ave., Suite 210
Lexington, MA 02421 USA

Phone: +1 781-222-5200

ScienceOpen’s Accessibility Statement

ScienceOpen’s journey has been consistently improving in its pursuit of a more open and accessible publishing landscape for all. Our focus has always been on fostering open science and developing innovative publishing products and solutions that enable smooth scientific communication and exchange. With over a decade of experience in digital publishing, we have managed to successfully address accessibility gaps in the digital publishing landscape.

We believe that inclusivity is key to fostering a thriving scientific community. To achieve this, ScienceOpen continually upgrades its network, ensuring that the platform evolves with one clear objective: to make scientific knowledge accessible to a global audience.

Our network keeps on upgrading with one goal in mind: Science Open & Accessible for All.

At ScienceOpen, we proudly uphold the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), ensuring that all our digital content is WCAG 2.1 compliant and that our solutions foster an inclusive and accessible environment for users of diverse abilities.

One of the cornerstones of our accessibility initiatives is the integration of alt-text elements into our digital infrastructure. These elements manifest on the HTML full-text article landing pages, significantly enhancing content accessibility for all users. This strategic move not only aligns with our commitment to inclusivity but also contributes to an improved overall user experience on ScienceOpen.

Example of a figure with alt-text from the article 'Reflections on the Power of the Pen'
Example of a figure with alt-text from ‘Reflections on the Power of the Pen’

Authors and editors who contribute content to ScienceOpen play a pivotal role in this accessibility journey. Our platform empowers them to easily add alternate texts for images featured in their articles during the regular submission process. This not only enriches the scholarly content hosted on ScienceOpen but also ensures that information is readily available to a broader audience.

Moreover, we understand the importance of catering to the diverse needs of our user base. By providing features that allow for text-to-speech compatibility, keyboard navigation, and customizable font sizes, we aim to create an environment where every user can engage with scientific content on their own terms.

Our dedication to accessibility goes beyond mere compliance.

In the simplest terms, ScienceOpen is a commitment to breaking down barriers in the world of digital publishing, not just a platform. We envision a future in which science is truly open and accessible to all, and we invite you to join us on this life-changing journey. Your feedback is invaluable to us, and we encourage you to contact us if you have any accessibility concerns, which will help to strengthen our collective efforts to make Science Open and Accessible to All.

Image with figure containing alt-text in an article by the Journal of Disability Research.
Screen readers are able to read out the figure title and an alt-text describing what is depicted to help make the text more comprehensive for visually impaired people.

Stay tuned while we keep upgrading ScienceOpen!

Last Updated: December 2023

This commitment to accessibility was last reaffirmed on December 2023, marking another step in our ongoing journey towards a more inclusive and accessible scientific community.

Contact for Accessibility Concerns:

If you encounter any accessibility issues or have specific concerns, please contact us at We are committed to addressing and resolving accessibility challenges to enhance the user experience.

Peer Review on ScienceOpen

Peer Review on ScienceOpen

Review by academic peers is an essential part of the scholarly publishing and communication process. By sharing their expert opinion, researchers evaluate and improve the research of their peers.

To support Open Access journals with a range of workflows, the ScienceOpen publishing infrastructure offers a traditional blinded review to meet the needs of certain communities. While we actively promote open review post publication, journals can also choose more traditional review options.

Our publishing platform enables scholars to contribute as reviewers across diverse fields of research and disciplines, allowing for simple and rapid publishing.

If you have been invited by an editor to provide your expert opinion on a submitted manuscript, here are a few guidelines to support you.

There are some general things to keep in mind when reviewing an article on ScienceOpen:

  • Your ScienceOpen profile needs to be synchronized with your ORCID account, to demonstrate that you are an active and professional researcher.
  • Reviews need to be constructive, courteous, and well-written.
  • All publications on ScienceOpen are open to commenting and post-publication peer review.
  • Everyone can invite other scholars, colleagues or peers to review any article.

Once you have linked your ScienceOpen account to your ORCID, you can start reviewing a paper by following the steps below:

How to Review?

1. Follow the link provided in your invitation e-mail and click on ‘Review Article’

Don’t forget to inform the editor that you can review an article within the deadline by clicking on the “Yes” or “No” buttons in your e-mail invitation. From the link in your invitation you can access the article. You can download the pdf or read in our pdf viewer pane.

2. Review and provide a rating for the article.

When you start the review process you will be asked to evaluate the paper in four different categories from 1 star (poor) to 5 stars (excellent). The categories are as follows:

  • Level of importance: Is the publication of relevance for the academic community and does it provide important insights? Does the work represent a new approach or new findings in comparison with other publications in the field? (note that this doesn’t preclude publication, as the paper has already been published!)
  • Level of validity: Is the hypothesis clearly formulated? Is the argumentation stringent? Are the data sound, well-controlled and statistically analysed? Is the interpretation balanced and supported by the data? Are appropriate and state-of-the-art methods used? Note that ScienceOpen also accepts publication of “negative” results (we just don’t think of them as being ‘negative’..)
  • Level of completeness: Do the authors reference the appropriate scholarly context? Do the authors provide or cite all information to follow their findings or argumentation? Do they cite the all relevant publications in the field?
  • Level of comprehensibility: Is the language correct and easy to understand for an academic in the field? Are the figures well displayed and captions properly described? Is the article systematically and logically organized?

3. Provide a written review. 

After rating the manuscript, reviewers may submit a written review (up to 10,000 characters). Reviews should stick to the aims and objectives set out above and follow a similar structure of major points followed by minor points and a conclusion with an overall impression of the manuscript. We trust that you will strive to make your review constructive, yet critical. The review text box allows you to add special characters, formulas, images, links and more. You are welcome to write your review in another program and just copy and paste into the box. Complete your review by adding a short summary sentence and don’t forget to mention any conflicts of interest. Press Continue button at bottom of page.

4. Check your Draft review and finalize by clicking Submit

Read through the draft of your review. You can make any changes with the “Edit” button or click “Submit” to submit your review to the editors. The authors will see your report but not your name.

When submitting your review, please keep in mind the following checklist.

Checklist for all reviewers

  • Do you have an account on ScienceOpen?  If not, follow the instructions here.
  • Did you link your ScienceOpen profile to ORCID publication history? Reviewers are usually required to have published at least five scientific articles. However, if you were invited to review an article on ScienceOpen you only need to have an ORCID ID linked to your ScienceOpen profile and you are good to go.
  • Did you do your best to minimize bias? When writing a review, you must officially declare that you have no “competing interests” that might compromise your independent assessment. Please read our statement on competing interests.
  • Did you ensure that your review remains annonymous? Sometimes reviewers add mistakenly their name or affiliation in the review text. If that is the case and you want to have your name published as a reviewer, please follow our guidelines on open peer review on our About page.

In our experience, all reviews at ScienceOpen have been civil, progressive, and detailed and we expect that researchers will strive for high quality, and to conduct themselves in a manner befitting professional researchers.

For further details, please refer to the short tutorial video below:

At ScienceOpen we have been developing infrastructure for peer review for over 10 years because we believe that it increases trust in science. Over the years we have continued to explore new tools and workflows to support preprint management, post-publication review, and the promotion of scholarly excellence on our network and beyond. 


DrugRepoCentral Privacy Policy



Privacy Policy

Privacy declaration for the site Drug Repurposing Central run by ScienceOpen

The information in this declaration applies to the processing of personal data on our website and is intended to inform you of the extent of processing, the purposes of processing, the recipients, legal bases, storage periods and your rights. Personal data are all information relating to an identified or identifiable person (hereinafter also referred to as “data subject”), for example your name, your address or your e-mail address. “Processing” of personal data means any operation performed on personal data; in particular the collection, storage, use and transmission of such data.

I. Name and Address of the controller

The controller within the meaning of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and other national data protection laws of the member states as well as other data protection regulations is:

ScienceOpen GmbH
Pappelallee 78/79
10437 Berlin


Data Protection Officer: Prof. Dr. Alexander Grossmann

II. General information on data processing

1. Legal basis for the processing of personal data

Insofar as the data subject has given consent to the processing of his or her personal data for one or more specific purposes, legal basis is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. a GDPR.

Insofar as the processing is necessary for the performance of a contract to which the data subject is party or in order to take steps at the request of the data subject prior to entering into a contract, legal basis is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. b GDPR.

Insofar as the processing is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which the controller is subject, legal basis is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. c GDPR.

If processing is necessary for the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by the controller or by a third party, except where such interests are overridden by the interests or fundamental rights and freedoms of the data subject which require protection of personal data, legal basis is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. f GDPR.

2. Data erasure and storage time

The personal data of the data subject will be erased or processing restricted as soon as the purpose of storage ceases to apply. In certain cases, data can be stored if this has been provided for by the European or national legislator in EU regulations, laws or other provisions to which the data controller is subject.

After the data subject has registered on the platform, created a profile and agreed to the storage of their personal data (see section V.4), their data will be stored indefinitely until they specifically ask for it to be erased.

If the data subject has agreed to the use of essential cookies required for the performance of the website (see section IV.4), that data will not be retained for more than 12 months.

If the data subject has agreed to the use of analytics cookies by a 3rd party provider (see section VII.4), that data will not be retained for more than 13 months.

III. Provision of the website and creation of log files

1. Description and extent of data processing

Every time you visit our website, our system automatically collects data and information from the computer system of the accessing device (computer, smartphone, tablet, etc.).

The following data is collected:

  • Information about the browser type and version used
  • The operating system of the accessing device
  • The IP address of the accessing device
  • Date and time of access
  • Websites from which the system of the accessing device reaches our website

The data is also stored in the log files of our system. This data is not stored together with other personal data of the user.

2. Legal basis for data processing

Legal basis for the temporary storage of data and log files is our legitimate interest to fulfill the purpose specified below (Art. 6 para. 1 lit. f GDPR).

3. Purposes of data processing

The temporary storage of the IP address by the system is necessary to enable the website to be delivered to the user’s device. For this the IP address of the user must remain stored for the duration of the session. The data is stored in log files to ensure the functionality of the website. In addition, the data serves us to optimize the website and to ensure the security of our information technology systems. An evaluation of the data for marketing purposes does not take place in this context.

Our legitimate interest in processing the data also lies in these purposes.

4. Storage time

The data will be erased as soon as they are no longer necessary to achieve the purpose for which they were collected. In the case of the collection of data for the provision of the website, this is the case when the respective session has ended.

If the data is stored in log files, this will happen after seven days at the latest.

IV. Usage of Cookies

Description and extent of data processing

Our website uses cookies. Cookies are text files that are stored in the Internet browser or by the Internet browser on the user’s computer system. If a user visits a website, a cookie may be stored on the user’s device. A cookie contains a characteristic character string that enables a unique identification of the browser when the website is called up again.

The following data is stored and transmitted in the cookies:

  • User authentication information
  • User interface settings

2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for the processing of personal data using cookies is our legitimate interest to fulfill the purpose specified below (Art. 6 para 1 lit. f GDPR).

3. Purpose of data processing

The purpose of using cookies is to simplify the use of our website for users. Some functions of our website cannot be offered without the use of cookies. For this it is necessary that the browser is recognized even after a change of pages within our internet presence. The cookies are not used to create user profiles.

We need cookies for the following applications:

  • Log-in function
  • User interface configuration

In these purposes is also our legitimate interest in the processing of personal data.

4. Storage time

Cookies are stored on your device with which you access our website and are transmitted to our site. Therefore, you as a user also have full control over the use of cookies. You can deactivate or restrict the transmission of cookies by changing the settings in your Internet browser. Cookies that have already been saved can be erased at any time. This can also be done automatically. If cookies are deactivated for our website, it may no longer be possible to use all functions of the website.

The following essential cookies (global ScienceOpen cookies) are required for performance:

Cookie name Retention time
initXss Session duration
cookiesAccepted 12 months

V. Registration

1. Description and extent of data processing

On our website, we offer users the opportunity to register by providing personal data. The data is entered into an input mask and transmitted to us and saved. The data will not be passed on to third parties. The following data is collected during the registration process:

  • Name
  • E-mail address
  • Password

You can also register with an account at Facebook, Linkedin or Orcid. Then these companies will transfer to us the aforementioned data. If you have registered with your full name, also this will be transferred to us.

At the time of registration, the following data is also stored:

  • The IP address of the user
  • The date and time of registration

2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for the processing of data is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. b GDPR.

3. Purpose of data processing

A registration of the user is necessary for the user to participate on the website and its subsidiary website and to generate content on the site (publications, reviews, comments, etc.).

At the registration step, the user and ScienceOpen conclude a contract for the use of the Website, subsidiary and its services (more details in the terms of use of ScienceOpen Platform). The personal data provided are used to identify the user by creating a user account. The creation of the user account enables the user to participate on the website and all of its subsidiary websites and generate content on the site(s).

4. Storage time

The data will be erased as soon as the purpose of its collection is no longer given. For the data collected during the registration process, this is usually the case when the user contract is terminated and the user’s account is erased.

If data is collected in the course of the registration which we are obliged to store due to tax, commercial law or other regulations, it will not be erased until the respective legal retention or storage periods have expired. The legal basis for this data storage is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. c GDPR.

5. Possibility of opposition and elimination

As a user you have the possibility to cancel the registration and delete your account at any time. Write us a message at the following address:


If the data is required to fulfil a contract or to carry out pre-contractual measures or if there are legal storage obligations, premature erasure of the data is only possible insofar as contractual or legal obligations do not prevent erasure. If erasure is not possible, processing may be restricted.

VI. Notifications

1. Description, extent and purpose of data processing

When registering for an account you also have the possibility to give your consent to receive notifications by e-mail. We will then use your stored e-mail-address to send you information about what is happening on your account. You will receive notifications via e-mail in the following cases. If further e-mail notification types are developed, a corresponding option to opt-out from such notifications will be developed in parallel:

  • You receive invitations on ScienceOpen
  • Comments are posted to your ScienceOpen article
  • Reviews are posted to your ScienceOpen article
  • Someone follows you on ScienceOpen
  • When there is a Collection event on ScienceOpen
  • New postings to the ScienceOpen blog
  • New ScienceOpen feature tutorials
  • Your monthly ScienceOpen impact

2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for the processing of data is your consent (Art. 6 para. 1 lit. a GDPR).

3. Storage time and revoke of consent

You have the possibility to unsubscribe from notifications via e-mail at any time and thus to revoke your consent, e.g. via the corresponding settings in your customer account or via the corresponding links which you will find at the end of each notification e-mail.

If you revoke your consent, we will no longer use your data to send you notifications. However, we will store your e-mail address and the proof of your consent for a period of three years starting at the end of the year in which we last sent you notifications via e-mail before your revocation, so that we can prove the consent in the event of a dispute. We will subsequently erase the data unless we need it for other purposes stated in this declaration, e.g. because you still have a customer account with us.

VII. Requests by E-Mail

1. Description and extent of data processing

It is possible to contact us via the e-mail address provided on our website. In this case, the user’s personal data transmitted via e-mail will be stored.

2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for the processing of the data is our legitimate interest to fulfill the purpose specified below (Art. 6 para. 1 lit. f GDPR).

3. Purpose of data processing

Purpose of data processing is the handling of requests and other questions. The processing of personal data serves us solely to handle the contact approach or application. This is also our legitimate interest in the processing of the data.

4. Storage time

The data will be erased as soon as the purpose of its collection is no longer given. For the personal data that were sent by e-mail, this is the case when the respective conversation with the user is finished. The conversation is finished when the circumstances indicate that the matter in question has been solved. The e-mail thread will be deleted at the latest after 6 months to ensure that the issue has been resolved.

If data is collected in the course of e-mail communication which we are obliged to store due to tax, commercial law or other regulations, it will not be erased until the respective legal retention or storage periods have expired. The legal basis for this data storage is Art. 6 para. 1 lit. c GDPR.

VII. Webanalysis with Matomo Analytics

1. Description and extent of data processing

Our website uses Matomo Analytics, a web analysis service of InnoCraft Ltd, 7 Waterloo Quay PO625, 6140 Wellington, New Zealand. Matomo Analytics uses Cookies, which are text files placed on users’ computers, to help the website analyze how users use the site. The information generated by the cookie about the use of the website by users is transferred to a Matomo cloud server in the EU and stored there.

InnoCraft uses the following subprocessors to process the data collected by Matomo Cloud customers:

Subprocessor Data location and security Service
Oblivion Cloud Control B.V (Xebia) based in the Netherlands Europe (Frankfurt and Dublin) Secure infrastructure for servers and databases and logs hosted in Frankfurt, Germany. Offsite backups are stored in Dublin, Ireland. This service is provided by AWS Europe, and all data is hosted in Europe.
Oblivion Cloud Control B.V (Xebia) based in the Netherlands Worldwide Secure CDN (Content Delivery Network) to store and deliver JavaScript files. This service is provided by AWS Europe. The use of the CDN feature is optional and can be disabled. No personal data is collected or stored by our CDN. Visitors are sent to a server closest to their region meaning for example traffic from EU people stays in the EU.

Please refer to the Matomo Cloud Data Processing Agreement for more information:

Matomo Cloud Terms & Conditions:

2. Legal basis for data processing

The legal basis for processing users’ personal data is our legitimate interest to fulfill the purpose specified below (Art. 6 para. 1 lit. f GDPR).

3. Purpose of data processing

The processing of user data by Matomo Analytics enables us to analyze the usage behavior of our users. We are able to compile information about the use of the individual components of our website by evaluating the data obtained. This helps us to continuously improve our website and its user-friendliness. In these purposes also lies our legitimate interest in the processing of the data. By anonymizing the IP address, users’ interest in protecting their personal data is sufficiently taken into account.

4. Storage time and possibility of objection

Cookies are stored on the user’s device and transmitted to our site from there. Users must actively opt-in to allowing analytics Cookies. This consent can be revoked from the website at any time. Therefore, you as a user have full control over the use of cookies. You can further deactivate or restrict the transmission of cookies by changing the settings in your Internet browser. Cookies that have already been saved can be erased at any time. Matomo Analytics cookies are stored for the following periods of time: .

Cookie name Retention time
_pk_id.2.1a2e 13 months
_pk_ses.2.1a2e 30 minutes

You can opt-out of data collection by Matomo Analytics when first opening the website. You can change your consent and opt-out of analytics cookies at any time by clicking on the link provided on the website. An opt-out cookie is set to prevent future collection of your data when you visit this website. The opt-out cookie is only valid in this browser and only for our website and is stored on your device. If you erase the cookies in this browser, you must set the opt-in or opt-out cookie again.

Further information on terms of use and data protection can be found at:

5. Recipient of the data and transfer to a third country

Notice on data transfer and GDPR compliance: While 100% of data and backups for Matomo Analytics are securely stored in Europe, the company is based in New Zealand. New Zealand is one of the few countries that the EU considers to have an adequate level of data protection. This provides legal certainty for Article 44 GDPR that the data does not go to a third country like the US even though we are using AWS. Because no personal data is transferred to third countries, no SCC’s are needed.

This means that Matomo Cloud is safe to use in the EU and fully GDPR-compliant.

VIII. Other recipients of data

For the provision of our website and the offered contact possibilities, we make use of other service providers who process the data stored by them exclusively on our behalf as processors according to Art. 28 GDPR.

Service Required MathJax helps to show mathematical formulas in TeX. Doesn’t use any personal data. Required for the Altmetric badge

IX. Rights of the data subject

If your personal data are processed, you are a data subject within the meaning of the GDPR and you have the following rights against the controller (in the case of the fulfilment of further conditions regulated in the relevant regulations, if applicable):

  • The right of access according to Art. 15 GDPR
  • The right to rectification according to Art. 16 GDPR
  • The right to erasure (“right to be forgotten”) according to Art. 17 GDPR
  • The right to restriction of processing according to Art. 18 GDPR
  • The right to a notification according to Art. 19 GDPR
  • The right to data portability according to Art. 20 GDPR
  • The right to object according to Art. 21 GDPR
  • The right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing according to Art. 22 GDPR
  • The right to withdraw consent to the processing of personal data according to Art. 7 para. 3 GDPR

To assert these rights, please contact our data protection officer., Alexander Grossmann,

Without prejudice to any other administrative or judicial remedy, you also have the right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority, in particular in the Member State where you are staying, working or suspected of infringing, if you believe that the processing of personal data concerning you infringes the GDPR.

BookMetaHub FAQ

BookMetaHub FAQ



Working on the BookMetaHub and not getting the results you were hoping for? Here is a list of common errors and how to fix it


  • DOI-based metadata query Errors: Can’t process […]/ UNSUPPORTED_TYPE/ ID does not exists 

Solution: Check the overview of supported record types and make sure the DOIs are registered:

  1. Crossref DOIs: Book/Book_chapter/ monograph/ edited book/ reference book
  2. DataCite DOIs: book/ monographs
  3. Zenodo DOIs: Book/ book section/ monograph/ publication book


  • Error Onix import: Unknown xml type

Solution: Check for Errors in tagging

  1. Check ONIX file:
    1. Do all opening and closing tags match?
    2. Are there tags missing?
    3. Check if Header has wrong/missing info
      1. e.g. is the Doc type/schema reference missing?
      2. Root element should show “” not “www.editeur”
        1. See e.g. <ONIXMessage release=”3.0″ xmlns=””>
      3. Encoding UTF-8 vs. utf-8 BOM
        1. Should be e.g. <?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>


  • Error Status Onix: LOADED but not imported

Solution: Make sure ONIX file contains essential elements such as

  1. Publisher
  2. publication date
  3. ISBNs
  4. Title
  5. Author


  • HowTo make sure to get best results when merging metadata from ONIX and DOI-based queried data
  1. Query DOI-based metadata via Crossref or DataCite first
  2. then update for additional metadata richness with ONIX files


  • Onix file was uploaded but additional formats are not shown accordingly

Solution: Are all formats correctly tagged

  1. Are additional ISBNs or chapters tagged correctly within <RelatedProduct>?


  • Additional Editors were invited to a Publisher Workspace but they are not added to Workspace accordingly

Solution: Make sure to use the correct publisher email

  1. Invite email must use the same email address as new editors in registration process
    1. then system can successfully connected new editors to Workspace


  • If you could not find any errors in your ONIX files, but upload was still not working, kindly forward a sample ONIX file to, so we can provide support and follow up accordingly. 


BookMetaHub Open API

BookMetaHub Open API

BookMetaHub – HowTo: open API


We are happy to announce that the BookMetaHub now operates an OAI-PMH service for the distribution of metadata in XML

This system is based on the OAI-PMH version 2 repository framework and implements the interface as documented here:

We support selective harvesting according to sets defined by the Publisher’s Workspaces available on BookMetaHub. To list all available sets, go to:


Please note that the from and until dates in a request capture when a record was imported to OAI database and are not referring to the publishing dates of the item.

This means a request of records with dates defined e.g. 2022-01-01 to 2022-12-31 will return all records that were created or updated within the hub throughout the year of 2022, regardless of the publication dates included in the records.


With the ListIdentifiers (ListRecords) request the set, from, and until parameters are optional.


Examples of requests:


Request a list of records from Masaryk University Press set (Workspace):

Request a list of all records imported since 2022-12-01:


Many OAI requests are too big to be retrieved in a single transaction. If a given response contains a resumption token like this:

<resumptionToken expirationDate=”2022-12-12T12:19:04Z” completeListSize=”705″ cursor=”10″>a8f7db4c-31cf-413c-8710-e13c8d845c6f</resumptionToken>

you must make an additional request to retrieve the rest of the data. The token should be appended to the end of the next request:

Patient Privacy and Informed Consent

ScienceOpen strives to protect the privacy of patients and research participants by ensuring that their personal information and data are handled responsibly and with due regard for their rights and autonomy. The ScienceOpen Patient Privacy and Informed Consent Policy seeks to ensure that participants have provided informed consent for their data to be used in research publications.

  1. Definition of terms
  • Patient: A person receiving medical treatment or participating in a clinical trial.
  • Research participant: A person participating in a research study, including but not limited to clinical trials, surveys, and interviews.
  • Personal information: Any data that can be used to identify an individual, including but not limited to name, address, email, telephone number, medical record number, and social security number.
  1. Informed consent: Authors submitting research articles must confirm that the research was conducted in accordance with relevant ethical standards and that informed consent was obtained from all research participants. This includes the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information and data. The consent form must clearly state the purpose of the research, how the data will be used, and any risks or benefits associated with participation.
  2. Protection of personal information: Authors must take reasonable steps to protect the personal information and data of research participants. This includes implementing appropriate security measures to prevent unauthorized access, disclosure, or use of personal information.
  3. De-identification of personal information: Authors must de-identify personal information and data to the extent possible before publishing research articles. Any personal information that cannot be de-identified must be removed from the article or masked in a way that ensures the privacy of the research participant.
  4. Retention and disposal of personal information: Authors must retain personal information and data only for as long as it is necessary to fulfill the purposes for which it was collected. At the end of the retention period, authors must dispose of personal information and data securely.
  5. Disclosure of personal information: Authors must disclose the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information and data in a transparent manner. Any third-party access or disclosure of personal information and data must be disclosed to the research participants and authorized by them.
  6. Compliance with laws and regulations: Authors must comply with all applicable laws and regulations, including but not limited to data protection laws, privacy laws, and regulations related to the conduct of research involving human subjects.

Non-compliance with this policy may result in the rejection of the manuscript, retraction of a preprint or article publication, and other disciplinary action as deemed appropriate by the publisher. This policy will be reviewed periodically and updated as necessary to reflect changes in laws and regulations or best practices.

ScienceOpen’s Policy for Handling Retractions, Withdrawals, and Expressions of Concern

  1. Retractions

a) Circumstances under which ScienceOpen will retract an article

ScienceOpen is committed to playing its part in maintaining the integrity of the scholarly record, therefore on occasion, it is necessary to retract articles. Articles may be retracted if:

  • There is major scientific error which would invalidate the conclusions of the article, for example where there is clear evidence that findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
  • Where the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
  • Where there are ethical issues such as plagiarism (appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit including those obtained through confidential review of others’ manuscripts) or inappropriate authorship (e.g., “guest” authorship; see COPE discussion document ‘What constitutes authorship?’).
  • Where unethical research has been reported.

b) ScienceOpen’s retraction process

In order to ensure that retractions are handled according to industry best practice, and in accordance with COPE guidelines, ScienceOpen adopts the following retraction process:

  • An article requiring potential retraction is brought to the attention of the journal editor. The retraction request can be brought by the authors, co-authors, related institutions or third-parties.
  • The journal editor should follow the step-by-step guidelines according to the COPE flowcharts (including evaluating a response from the author of the article in question).
  • Before any action is taken, the editor’s findings should be sent to ScienceOpen for review. The purpose of this step is to ensure a consistent approach in accordance with industry best practice.
  • The final decision as to whether to retract is then communicated to the author and, if necessary, any other relevant bodies, such as the author’s institution on occasion.
  • The retraction statement is then posted online with its own DOI and linked to the retracted paper. The title of the article is changed to add the term “RETRACTED:” as a prefix to the title. A cover page with the information RETRACTED is added to the pdf file.

c) Complaints procedure

To challenge to a retraction or a related issue, ScienceOpen’s procedure is as follows:

  • The complaint may be submitted via the journal editor or directly to ScienceOpen at
  • An independent investigation is then carried out by at least two representatives from ScienceOpen and/or the Editorial Board of the journal (the “investigatory team”).
  • The investigation involves reviewing all correspondence relating to the case in question and, if necessary, obtaining further written responses to queries from the parties involved.
  • The purpose of the investigation is to establish that correct procedures have been followed, that decisions have been reached based on academic criteria, that personal prejudice or bias of some kind has not influenced the outcome, and that appropriate sanctions have been applied where relevant.
  • The investigatory team will then submit its findings to ScienceOpen for further review before any onward communications to the appropriate parties.
  • Complainants may choose to take their complaint to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

d) Process for issuing a retraction statement

Where the decision is taken to retract and the article to be retracted is the Version of Record (i.e. it has been published as Preprint or within an issue of a journal), ScienceOpen recommends issuing a retraction statement which should be published separately but should be linked to the article being retracted. A “retracted” coverpage will be added to the article pdf; however the article as first published should be retained online in order to maintain the scientific record. Issuing a retraction statement will mean the following:

  • The retraction will be listed in the contents page and the title of the original article will be included in its heading;
  • The text of the retraction should explain why the article is being retracted; and
  • The statement of retraction and the original article must be clearly linked in the electronic database so that the retraction will always be apparent to anyone who comes across the original article.

e) Circumstances under which an article may be deleted

It is ScienceOpen’s policy to strongly discourage withdrawal of the Version of Record in line with the international guidelines on retractions and preservation of the objective record of science. Therefore deletion of the Version of Record is rare and ScienceOpen will only consider it in the following limited circumstances:

  • Where there has been a violation of the privacy of a research subject;
  • Where there are errors to which a member of the general public might be exposed and if followed or adopted, would pose a significant risk to health; or
  • Where a clearly defamatory comment has been made about others in the relevant field or about their work.
  • Where an Accepted Article (which represents an early version of an article) is to be retracted, because for example it contains errors, has been accidentally submitted twice or infringes a professional ethical code of some type, it may be deleted. This is because, whilst an Accepted Article will have been allocated a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), it does not constitute the Version of Record as it will not yet have been formally published and does not yet carry complete bibliographic information.

Even in the above circumstances, bibliographic information about the deleted article should be retained for the scientific record, and an explanation given, however brief, about the circumstances of its removal.

  1. Withdrawals

a) Circumstances under which an article may be withdrawn

It is ScienceOpen’s policy to strongly discourage withdrawal of the Version of Record, whether a preprint or published article, because it has already been assigned a permanent DOI which is immediately shared with many thrid party sercives. Therefore, withdrawal or deletion of the Version of Record is rare, and ScienceOpen will only consider it in limited circumstances, such as the following:

  • Where there has been a violation of the privacy of a research subject;
  • Where there are errors to which a member of the general public might be exposed and if followed or adopted, would pose a significant risk to health; or
  • Where a clearly defamatory comment has been made about others in the relevant field or about their work.
  • There are legal issues around the authorship of the work or plagiarism.

b) Process for issuing a Withdrawal

A withdrawal is usually initiated before the article is published (before or after peer review, during peer review or just before publication). This situation can be more complicated in the case of public preprints. In order for preprints to be considered permanent research objects that are able to be cited and used to demonstrate productivity for grants or job applications, readers must be able to cite them without fear that they will spontaneously become unavailable. Therefore, removal of preprint files is typically reserved for cases where there are significant ethical or legal concerns with the original paper. Where the decision is taken to withdraw and the preprint to be retracted is the Version of Record and has been issued a DOI, ScienceOpen recommends publishing a new version by posting a new version of the paper that is effectively a withdrawal notice published separately but is linked to the article being retracted.

  1. Expressions of Concern

Journal editors may consider issuing an Expression of Concern if they have well-founded concerns and feel that readers should be made aware of potentially misleading information contained in an article. However, Expressions of Concern should only be issued if an investigation into the problems relating to the article has proved inconclusive, and if there remain strong indicators that the concerns are valid. See COPE case 17-02 Data manipulation and institute’s internal review.

On very rare occasions, an Expression of Concern may be issued while an investigation is underway but a judgement will not be available for a considerable time. However, in such cases there must be well-founded grounds to suggest that the concerns are valid.

In all cases, editors should be aware that an Expression of Concern carries the same risks to a researcher’s reputation as a retraction, and it is often preferable to wait to publish a retraction until a definitive judgement has been achieved by an independent investigation. See COPE case 15-10 Handling self-admissions of fraud.

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